War has significant impacts, but perhaps most of all on civilians and veterans. Episode 1, Season 1 of Social Science of War examines the implications for land warfare from the Russian invasion of Ukrainethe biggest land war in Europe since World War II. US military spending amounts to more than $1 trillion annually. There is the natural fear that loved ones will never return from their overseas involvement in armed conflict. However it is calculated, the US military budget is by far the highest in the world and in fact accounts for 43 percent of the worlds military spending. The Second World War triggered a series of rapid and far-reaching social changes in Newfoundland and Labrador. AlterNet. That is the good news and the cause for hope. Some verses follow. Oscar Arias, a former president of Costa Rica and a winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, echoed these famous words from President Eisenhower when he wrote a decade ago that US military spending took money away from important domestic needs. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. As an economics writer wryly noted, So remember to take pride in American power, and remember that it comes at a very high price. In making this classic macroeconomics decision, the United States has much to learn from the wealthy nations of Europe. The Note 16.13 Children and Our Future box discusses this problem in greater detail. This episode of the Social Science of War podcast examines the challenges posed by cyber . Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Drew, C. (2011, March 30). Advertisement capkay1505 nvm pretend u didn't see Advertisement A popular explanation for war derives from evolutionary biology. One Iraq veteran with these problems is Tom Marcum, who came home with a brain injury, PTSD, and fits of violence and short-term memory loss. Victims of military rape deserve justice. Identify two social science issues related to education. Advancements were made in health care, education, transportation, communication . However, the calculation for this statement excludes the additional military expenses just discussed, and it uses a misleading measure of federal spending. Dao, J. As discussed earlier, President Eisenhower eloquently warned about the influence of the US military and the size of the military budget. John Tirman, director of the Center for International Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, worries that Americans have neglected the civilian victims of war. Nations also go to war for ideological reasons: they have certain belief systems that lead them to hold prejudice and other hostile feelings toward nations with different belief systems. Women veterans face a special problem that most male veterans do not have to fear. Question. As one scholar said of the military bases, It makes as much sense for the Pentagon to hold onto 227 military bases in Germany as it would for the post office to maintain a fleet of horses and buggies (vanden Heuvel, 2011). Collier, E. C. (1993). Bikeshedding Bikeshedding is the tendency for groups to focus on solving trivial problems while neglecting larger problems. Nuclear weapons overview. Partial justice: Women, prisons, and social control. Social science is the scholarly study of human society and social relationships. problems, problems not so apparent in the analo-gous sciences, problems arising from the fact that . Dont blame the caveman. Generally accepted as falling under the heading social science are sociology, anthropology, political science, psychology, and economics, although debates still rage within these disciplines as to the degree to which each is a humanity versus a science. Our nations failure to meet their needs is shameful. Pollin, R., & Garrett-Peltier, H. (2011). Washington rules: Americas path to permanent war. Choose one of the five social institutions. The enormity of war has long stimulated scholarly interest in why humans wage war (Levy & Thompson, 2010). Of these reported cases, only one-fifth went to trial, and only half of these defendants were convicted. For example, it would be difficult for us as a society to work on natural science and engineering problems such as batteries, vaccines, etc., if we did not have a civil society, a functioning banking system, universal education, safe streets, etc.and all of these are social problems, not natural science problems. This episode of Social Science of War examines a range of issues related to Army talent managementfrom the ways in which service in the Army impacts a soldier's earning potential to how the Army is responding to its current recruiting crisis. The Methodology of the Social Sciences (Max Weber) Give Me Liberty! When napalm ends up on human skin, it causes incredibly severe pain and burns down to the bone, with death often resulting. The Vietnam War marked a time when many Americans became concerned about childrens suffering during wartime. Identify two social science issues related to education. Some people think of war as a negative thing, and some people . Bombs containing napalm made by Dow Chemical were routinely used by the US military and its South Vietnamese allies during the Vietnam War to defoliate the countryside and to attack various targets. Reflecting this decline, a smaller percentage of the worlds population died in armed conflict during the past century than in earlier eras. Although 55 million is more than 40 million, the worlds population in the thirteenth century was only one-seventh its population during the World War II period. The primary mode of research involved survey questionnaires given anonymously to samples, many of them random, of military members. In 2010, the US official military budget (defense outlays only) was $698 billion. In M. D. Cavelty & V. Mauer (Eds. It soon became the biggest social and economical problem for the whole world. List the types of problems that military veterans often face. Retrieved February 16, 2012, from http://costofwar.com/en/tradeoffs/state/CA/program/11/tradeoff/0. Boot, M. (2012). McGovern, G. (2011). Tirman, J. I think it partly reflects a better understanding of the problems that led to war. This change is widely credited with helping spur the hopes of southern African Americans that racial desegregation would someday occur in their hometowns (McKeeby, 2008). The secret way to war: The Downing Street memo and the Iraq Wars buried history. Vietnam Veterans Against the War. Introduction. Religion is a very important ideology in this regard. Second, the world today is a much more dangerous place than in the past because of the existence of nuclear weapons. Obamas defense cuts are a drop in the bucket. We both wound up suspended for that one (Ashton, 2011). Week 1 Question 7 Identify two social science issues related toeducation. Leitenberg, M. (2006). Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Operation New Dawn (OND), and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) U.S. Casualty Status. Read summaries of the latest scientific research pertaining to a range of social issues. Actually, we have not had a war between major powers since 1945. These theorists advocate a reflective or issues-centered curriculum and often emphasize curricular attention to social problems. However, later investigation revealed that the attack never occurred and that the White House lied to Congress and the American people (Wells, 1994). More than 20,000 nuclear warheads now exist; 4,800 are operational and almost 2,000 (held by the United States and Russia) are on high alert, ready to be used at any time (Federation of American Scientists, 2011). Critics say these exports help fuel the worldwide arms race and international discord. However, other scientists dispute the evolutionary explanation for several reasons (Begley, 2009). The Washington Post. Although the truce later dissolved and labor-management conflict resumed, labor eventually won some limited rights thanks partly to its support for the war. . NIJ's portfolio of social science research on forensic science was built in three "waves." Women veterans who are raped or sexually assaulted often suffer PTSD. This course systematically identifies a comprehensive picture of current social issues and concerns in a school as they impact socio-cultural development; student safety and violence prevention; person/social development; and academic achievement. US veterans: By the numbers. They are also more likely to engage in drug use and binge drinking. When these problems occur, they may ironically worsen the psychological state of these veterans. Tirman, J. Harrison, T. (2012). Betrayal in the Ranks. War between nations is called international war, while war within nations is called civil war. Unwarranted Influence: Dwight D. Eisenhower and the military-industrial complex. After they did so, US ground troops shot them and left a pile of dead bodies that included twenty-one children. Children of deployed troops struggle, study finds. When it comes to our wars overseas, he adds, concern for the victims is limited to U.S. troops.. Holland, J. Experts disagree over this issue. Shah, A. Now, all I see is blood (Herdy & Moffeit, 2004, p. 4). Researchers found that acceptance and support from community and family may lessen the toll of mental health conditions experienced by former child soldiers. As a historian summarized this connection, By the end of the war, labors wartime mobilization and participation had increased its relative power within European societies. (2009). Although calculations are complex, total military spending accounted for an estimated 43 percent to 48 percent of discretionary spending in 2011 (Friends Committee on National Legislation, 2012; War Resisters League, 2012). The geopolitical nuclear landscape . Looking after the soldier, back home and damaged. Retrieved from http://defensenewsstand.com/NewsStand-General/The-INSIDER-Free-Article/dod-new-nuclear-subs-will-cost-347-billion-to-acquire-operate/menu-id-720.html. Our guests begin by discussing Russian grand strategy and by framing the threat posed by Russia to US national security. Listen December 26, 2022 00:49:51 Use the reading about social institutions in India to identify two social science issues that could be researched A., & Wilson, S. M. (2010). Social Problems by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook. The more they spend on their military (guns), the less they can spend on food for their poor and other domestic needs (butter). Protesters at Dow Chemicals New York office carried signs that said, Napalm Burns Babies, Dow Makes Money.. Causes of war. ), The Routledge handbook of security studies (pp. Daedalus, 133(4), 2535. . Federation of American Scientists. (2011). Americas defense meltdown: Pentagon reform for President Obama and the new Congress Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Human and human social systems are matter. Reid Kasprowicz A Flag for the Fallen CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. Although education benefits and many other services for veterans exist, the nation needs to do much more to help veterans, these observers say (Baker, 2012; Shusman, 2012). War Resisters League. Veterans of the Vietnam War came back to a nation that often did not greet them as heroes. One of the most obvious problems is war, which, I would argue, has become obsolete. Tirman describes one Korean incident in which machine gun fire from US warplanes killed about one hundred civilian refugees who were resting on a road. Tirman (2012, p. 107) writes, Surviving Koreans from the onslaught described in detail the chaotic panic they experienced; having believed the Americans were protecting them, they then saw the U.S. troops fire indiscriminately at men, women, and children at the scene. At the end of the three days, about four hundred civilians lay dead. There are also many innocent victims in wartime, but when children are victims, our hearts especially go out to them. Feinstein, A. (2011). Many veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have also come back home with these problems. Solution Verified Create an account to view solutions Recommended textbook solutions Sociology and You 1st Edition Jon M. Shepard, Robert W. Greene 713 solutions Sociology and You 1st Edition Jon M. Shepard, Robert W. Greene 750 solutions Other experts echo President Eisenhowers concern over the size of the military budget (Bacevich, 2011; Korb, Rothman, & Hoffman, 2012; Lochhead, 2012; Wheeler, 2009). First, the defense industry is very effective at lobbying Congress for increased military spending, with the cozy relationship among members of the military-industrial complex helping to ensure the effectiveness of this lobbying. These more basic causes of war include population change and environmental change. As a result, and despite the fact that endeavors to reward labor for its wartime cooperation were, in general, provisional, partial, and half-hearted, it was nonetheless the case that labor achieved some real gains (Halperin, 2004, p. 155). Noting that the military budget today exceeds the average budget during the Cold War, they think military spending is far higher than it needs to be to ensure the nations defense with the Soviet Union no longer a threat. In these surveys, between 10 percent and 33 percent of women report being raped (including attempts) while they were serving in the military. Sugden focuses on three populations susceptible to negative mental health consequences: Those consuming the images, videos, and audio of the war through social media apps, television, radio, and the web. This percentage range is much higher than the 20 percent share of federal spending cited by the government solely for defense outlays. Second, members of Congress fear being labeled weak on defense if they try to reduce the military budget or do not agree to new weapons systems requested by the Pentagon. (2012, February 18). Social issues news. New York Times, p. A12. Conventional arms transfers to developing nations, 20032010. Martinez, L., & Bingham, A. Statistical abstract of the United States: 2012. Depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic problems such as insomnia are the most common effects. The United States has been at war in one-fifth of the years it has existed (Bumiller, 2010). vanden Heuvel, K. (2011, June 13). Retrieved from http://www.alternet.org/world/151337/are_we_giant_suckers_while_the_us_blows_money_on_the_military,_europe _spends_dough_on_social_programs. Each submarine is projected to cost more than $8 billion to build and another $21 billion in constant dollars in operation and maintenance costs over its lifetime (Castelli, 2012). The psychological effect of war on veterans and their families We have textbook solutions for you! Analysis of the FY2012 defense budget. When the war began, a sort of truce developed between management and labor, as workers wanted to appear patriotic by supporting the war effort and hoped that they would win important labor rights for doing so. Choices under fire: Moral dimensions of World War II. Retrieved February 18, 2012, from http://servicewomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Rape-Sexual-Assault-and-Sexual-Harassment-in-the-Military.pdf. Evidence from a national survey of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans underscores the problems they face (Pew Research Center, 2011). 7 answers. As this overview of the debate over military spending indicates, the military remains a hot topic more than two decades after the Cold War ended following the demise of the Soviet Union. End of US military segregation set stage for rights movement. Looking further back in world history, the death rate in prehistoric times from tribal warfare was extremely high. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/war_stories/2012/02/_2013_pentagon_budget_why_so_much_spending_on_big_war_weapons_.html. These weapons were never found, and critics charged that the White House had fabricated and exaggerated evidence of the weapons in order to win public and congressional support for the war (Danner, 2006). But veterans are casualties in other ways, as the news story that began this chapter made clear. Identify two social science issues related to education. Epistemologically, scientific realism is (say, mainly) based on the idea that we generate theoretical entities to understand, describe, and discover a structure . In shedding light on the prevalence of military rape and sexual assault and on the many negative effects of these crimes, social science research has performed an important service. The cause for despair is twofold. The issues and problems discussed so far in this chapter concern the nation's elementary and secondary schools in view of their critical importance for tens of millions of children and for the nation's social and economic well-being. "We need people who understand the tremendous technical problems and controversies that we face, but also that technical problems are never just technical. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. A recent study found that adolescents with a deployed parent are more likely than those with civilian parents to feel depressed and suicidal. Because it took place in Iraq, many more Iraqis than Americans died or were wounded, and the war certainly affected Iraqi societyits infrastructure, economy, natural resources, and so forthfar more than it affected American society. According to the Education Research Center, United States, around 7,000 high school students drop out of school every day.The high drop out rates are propelled by social issues in education as mentioned above. Shusman, B. Choose one of the five social institutions. Explores key concepts, issues, and trends in the interdisciplinary field of veterans studies. A related problem is suicide. Outline both sides to the debate over the size of the US military budget. The Korean and Vietnam veterans memorials in the nations capital and so many other memorials across the nation remind us of the hundreds of thousands of brave men and women who have died serving their country. Regardless of these problems, this growing body of research documents how often rape and sexual assault in the military occur. A popular explanation comes from the field of evolutionary biology and claims that a tendency toward warfare is hardwired into our genetic heritage because it conferred certain evolutionary advantages. First, the human brain is far more advanced than the brains of other primates, and genetic instincts that might drive these primates behavior do not necessarily drive human behavior. Castelli, C. J. Social Issues in Sports & Activities: Athletics. Theyre in good shape for the shape theyre in, Sources: Ledbetter, 2011; Vietnam Veterans Against the War, 1971. As the text discusses, most military women who are raped or sexually assaulted do not report these crimes to military authorities. However, issues also affect higher education, and we examine a few of them here. National Priorities Project. First, it excludes several military-related costs such as veterans benefits and interest on the national debt from past military spending. The Union of Concerned Scientists (2009) summarizes their danger bluntly: Nuclear weapons remain the greatest and most immediate threat to human civilization. However more peaceful the world is today, it could easily end at any moment. The shadow world: Inside the global arms trade. The American Civil War, also called the War Between the States, then tore it apart less than a century later. This type of research accelerated, however, after several scandals involving sexual assault and harassment occurred during the 1990s on military bases and at military academies. When sexual assaults and sexual harassment are added to the crimes mentioned to respondents, between 22 percent and 84 percent of women report being raped, sexually assaulted, and/or sexually harassed while serving. What do you think is the worst problem that veterans have faced in returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan? Here are the top 10 popular social issues of 2022. But not all civilians are affected equally. Sources: Fischer, H. (2005). As a result, observes one economics writer, most Europeans have universal health care, deeply subsidized education (including free university tuition in many countries), modern infrastructure, good mass transit, and far less poverty than the United States has. In addition to psychological and physiological trauma, rape and sexual assault impose huge economic costs on the military because of medical expenses for helping survivors and for prosecuting their rapists. Their unemployment rate was 13.1 percent in December 2011, compared to only 8.5 percent for the general public; the unemployment rate for veterans ages 2024 was near 30 percent (Dewan, 2011; Zornick, 2012). APA 950 words Get instant access to the full solution from by clicking the purchase button below $12.00 Added to cart Related Questions: Watch this clip from the popular TV show Adam Ruins Everything titled The Secret Reason Weed is Illegal . The study involved child soldiers who participated in Sierra . Even if they are less frequent and less deadly than in the past, that is of little comfort to the tens of millions of people around the world during the past century who died or otherwise suffered in war and other armed conflict and who live in fear today of becoming a victim of armed conflict. This diversion of funds is unfortunate, but it might still be necessary if the high level of US military spending is needed to ensure the nations security. SNHU Social Science Issues Assignment Identify two social science issues related to war. The first is the thirteenth century, when the Mongol Empire under the initial leadership of Genghis Khan became an empire in Asia and Eastern Europe through wars and conquest in which it killed 40 million people. Social studies is an integrated research field. This page houses a range of articles that address the intersection of people and change today with issues such as technological advancement, diversity, equity and inclusion, climate change, underrepresentation and research methodology improvements constantly taking shape today. To get a more accurate estimate of how many such crimes occur, sound social research is necessary. Future research will no doubt build on existing studies to further illuminate this significant problem. Third, and helping to explain the success of this lobbying, military spending provides jobs and income to the home districts of members of Congress. Critics of the military budget say that the billions of dollars spent on weapons and other military needs would be better spent on domestic needs such as schools and day care. Retrieved from http://www.voanews.com/english/news/usa/Public-Private-Organizations-Work-to-Help-Thousands-of-Homeless-Veterans-in-NY- 139520143.html. American war and military operations casualties: Lists and statistics. Chapter 1 / Exercise 3 The US employment effects of military and domestic spending priorities: 2011 update. (2011). Retrieved February 20, 2012, from http://www.cfr.org/defense-policy-and-budget/slashing-americas-defense-suicidal-trajectory/p26989. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. What it means to be a democrat. (2011). According to this argument, war is part of our genetic heritage because the humans who survived tens of thousands of years ago were those who were most able, by virtue of their temperament and physicality, to take needed resources from other humans they attacked and to defend themselves from attackers. (2012). Quality and affordable writing services. Americans are hurt, he warned, when the defense budget squanders money that could be used to repair schools or to guarantee universal health care (Arias, 1999, p. A19). Levy, J. S., & Thompson, W. R. (2010). That problem is rape, as at least one-fifth and perhaps as many as 84 percent of all military service are raped or sexually assaulted (including sexual harassment) by other military personnel (Turchik & Wilson, 2010). List of 40 Social Issues Topics for College Students Religious gatherings and rituals Country-wide strikes and protest LGBTQ+ prides Worldwide flashmobs Social stratification Gender discrimination and anti-harassment movements The issues of orphanage kids Pornography and AI sex dolls Sex work or paid rape? It includes a range of topics on social science and humanities, such as history, culture, geography, sociology, education, etc. Dewan, S. (2011, December 18). One of these civilians was a 9-year-old girl named Phan Thi Kim Phuc. The defense industry remains a powerful force in the US economy six decades after Eisenhower issued his warning, and US military spending continues unabated. Turchik, J. Sometimes, as with the US entrance into World War II after Pearl Harbor, these decisions are sincere and based on a perceived necessity to defend a nations people and resources, and sometimes these decisions are based on cynicism and deceit (Solomon, 2006). Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/obamas-damaging-blow-to-our-military/2012/01/12/gIQA3eMhuP_story.html. The minimum estimate almost matches the number of American deaths in all the other wars the United States has fought, and the maximum estimate greatly exceeds this number (see Table 16.2 US Participation in Major Wars). War and social change in modern Europe: The great transformation revisited. As a reminder, the social science principles we focus on in this course are social roles, social institutions, social norms, and beliefs and values. The high unemployment rate of the Iraq and Afghanistan veterans has made this need even more urgent. Voice of America News. The United States, of course, began with the colonial war against England. These effects are similar to those for civilians, and include anxiety, depression, PTSD, poorer physical health, and poorer job performance (in this case, their military duties). (2011). This work goes under a variety of names, including 'human dynamics' and 'computational social science'. Herdy, A., & Moffeit, M. (2004). the families are worried about their loved ones Skip to document Ask an Expert Sign inRegister Sign inRegister Home Ask an ExpertNew My Library Discovery Institutions University of California Los Angeles Keiser University The Nation. We need to confront them to ensure equal treatment for everyone. This same yearly amount could have paid for one years worth (California cost figures) of all of the following (National Priorities Project, 2012): All these figures demonstrate that war and preparation for war indeed have a heavy human cost, not only in the numbers of dead and wounded, but also in the diversion of funds from important social functions and needs. Although wars, other armed conflicts, terrorism, and genocide certainly continue, and 100 million is a terribly high number of deaths, the world overall is in fact more peaceful now than in the past. The U.S. military does not need or want all officers to become social scientist researchers, but applied social science can nevertheless help develop strategic thinking because it: (1) focuses on human behavior and influence; (2) develops comfort with competing theories; (3) requires creativity; and (4) uses evidence and iteration to better . As its name implies, mandatory spending is required by various laws and includes such things as Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid, and interest payments on the national debt.
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